The history of the modern tire began with a bad headache. It was 1888 in Belfast, and on the rough cobbled surface of May Street, a young boy was prescribed cycling as a cure for his recurrent headaches. His father, John Boyd Dunlop, was a successful veterinarian, and it did not take long for him to see that the doctor`s prescription was counter-productive. The solid rubber tires of the boy`s tricycle made for a jarring ride. This was also the reason that the very first bicycles were once nicknamed “bone-shakers”, but on this day, as he watched his young son bang and bounce across the street, Dunlop had a revolutionary idea.
Using a sheet of rubber that covered his operating table, he cut the material into strips and then sewed them into a long tube which he then glued together. He wrapped the strips of canvas around it and then sealed the surface with liquid rubber and pumped it with air. Thus, the first pneumatic tire was born. Just a year later, the speed and efficiency of Dunlop`s tire was confirmed when the Irish cyclist, Willie Hume, used it to win two different races, presumably headache-free.The Guinness World Record of tires
Since 1888, the tire industry has expanded to over 900 tire factories around the world. In 2015, nearly 170 million tires were manufactured in the US alone. Surprisingly, the world`s largest tire manufacturer, recognized by the Guinness World Records, remains the Lego group, who produced over 318 million toy tires in 2011.
Despite these staggering numbers, most of us still don`t think much about tires until we are inconvenienced by one. Hardly anyone thinks about tires as their life insurance. Even tough they can be exactly that. A tire’s tread pattern can make the difference between a short or a too long braking distance. Besides that, everyone also knows the headache of having to change a flat tire on the side of the freeway, but fortunately, with the advance of tire technology, this is becoming a much less frequent occurrence.
In 1901, just over a decade after Henry Ford had built his first automobile, there were seven thousand car sales, along with 28,000 tires and in comparison, a staggering 68,000 replacement tires produced. Due to early road conditions, which were not yet compatible with cars, putting on a spare was simply part of the routine of driving so that many vehicles were equipped with up to four replacement tires at a time.The belts behind the scenes
As the tire industry continuously finds new ways to keep drivers rolling safely across the roads, Habasit works globally behind the scenes to provide tire manufacturers with the right belting at every step of production.
“During the tire manufacturing process, from beginning to end, there are many different technical requirements because the process begins with raw materials and then ends with a finished tire,” explains Habasit`s Key Account Manager for the tire industry, Jens Niepmann. “We have to provide a variety of belts with very different qualities such as being heat-, wear-, hydrolysis-, or chemical-resistant.”The unexpected ingredients of a tire
Depending on the properties desired, such as low rolling resistance or ultra-high grip, over 200 different ingredients can go into any one tire from natural and synthetic rubber to carbon black, and silica as well as a large variety of other chemical agents.
In recent years, as the industry has become more aware of its carbon footprint, manufacturers have begun to explore the possibility of using alternative oils to make synthetic rubber, such as canola, orange and sunflower oil. Not only is this a step toward sustainability, but in some cases, it also provides enhanced performance of the tire. Researchers are also looking into the replacement of expensive reinforcing fillers like carbon black and silica with oils, cellulose fibers or other plant materials. A few more possible ingredients which you might not expect in your tire are cornstarch, dandelions, walnut shells and wood pulp.The roadside assistance you`ve been waiting for
Whether a tire consists of flowers or the milky liquid of a rubber tree, the fact remains that the manufacturing process is a sticky and heated one.
“When the rubber first comes out of the mixing process, it can be up to 150-160°C,” explains Jens Niepmann. “It is a very rough and specific environment for the belts, and since there are chemical processes happening in the rubber mix, the properties of the intermediate material are changing even while in transport.”
From fabric and plastic modular belts to wide timing belts, dozens of belts are necessary for the construction of even one tire. In a large plant, with up to 20,000 tires being manufactured each day, seamless and efficient processes are required. Even the slightest interruption to production can mean costly drawbacks for the company. Imagine that flat tire on the freeway multiplied by 20,000.
This is where Habasit comes to help, not only offering complete solutions for every stage of tire production, but also providing a unique product, which is the kind of roadside assistance the industry has been waiting for. There are numerous timing belts required in a tire building line. If one belt breaks down, unforeseen downtime is driving costs upwards and production numbers down. If a set of belts needs to be replaced in a line, even in planned maintenance windows, it will mean up to ten hours of downtime, and the labor of four to five employees. And every tire plant operates multiple lines!Introducing the HabaSYNC® Hinge Joint Mechanical Timing Belt Fastener
In order to minimize such costly downtimes, the Habasit Hinge Joint was developed. This small device is securely positioned within the timing belt. Each end of the joint is connected with a metal pin, which can be easily slipped out, facilitating fast and safe belt assembly. For tire manufacturers around the world, the product has been proven to make a significant impact in lowering production costs and increasing efficiency.
As we all know, the occasional breakdown, whether on the side of the street or on a tire production line, is inevitable, but headaches are not. In the tradition of John Boyd Dunlop, Habasit is finding new ways to make a bumpy ride less than bone-shaking. (ST)
Visit our booth at the Tire Technology Expo 2019 in Hannover, Germany from March 5th-7th, 2019. www.tiretechnology-expo.com.